Jul 13, 2024  
2022-2023 General Catalog 
    
2022-2023 General Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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RAD 122 - Radiographic Procedures I


Last Date of Approval: Spring 2021

4 Credits
Total Lecture Hours: 45
Total Lab Hours: 30
Total Clinical Hours: 0
Total Work-Based Experience Hours: 0

Course Description:
This course is one semester, students study positioning, and common procedures performed in the radiology department. This course is designed for students who are pursuing a radiologic technology degree. Procedures include upper and lower extremities, chest, and abdomen x-rays. A vital part of this course will be theory of exposure, radiation protection, and basic image critique. This course will help students gain the basic knowledge of radiographic positioning and will help provide entry-level skills related specifically to radiologic technologist’s job duties while enhancing their overall knowledge when making important life decisions.

Corequisites: RAD 210, RAD 320 
Prerequisites:  HSC 113  and a college-level math course with a C or higher

BIO 168
Prerequisites/Corequisites: HSC 104 , BIO 173  

Mode(s) of Instruction: traditional/face-to-face

Credit for Prior Learning: There are no Credit for Prior Learning opportunities for this course.

Course Fees: None

Common Course Assessment(s): None

Student Learning Outcomes and Objectives:
Student Learning Outcomes

1. Define basic radiographic terminology and principals related to radiographic practice.

2. Describe methods of radiation protection, recognizing its importance and necessity.

3. Identify anatomical structures of the chest, abdomen, upper and lower extremities, hip, pelvis, and proximal femora on radiographs and diagrams.

4. Demonstrate accurate radiographic positioning for radiographic procedures of the chest, abdomen, upper and lower extremities, hip, pelvis, and proximal femora through lab simulations.

5. Relate laboratory practice and competency to the clinical environment.

6. Evaluate radiographs to determine diagnostic quality as it relates to: technical factors, positioning, and visibility of structures of clinical interest.

7. Demonstrate a commitment to quality radiographic work by repeating an assignment or lab competency to master the proper positioning technique.

8. Demonstrate professionalism by following written and verbal instruction, responding positively to suggestions, working well with peers and instructors,and developing a commitment to quality work.

Course Objectives

Unit 1 -  Introductory steps in radiography, compensating filters, general anatomy, radiographic positioning terminology, and basic radiographic concepts.

• Define all Key terms and abbreviations.

• Recognize the Health care environment, radiography professional credentials, professional organizations specific to radiography, and the professional development and advancement of a radiologic technologist.

• Outline the key exposure factors of kVp, mAs, and time.

• Define the exposure process and basic radiation principals as it relates to radiographic imaging of the human body.

• Explain patient considerations when performing diagnostic radiographic procedures.

• Discuss the purpose of compensating filters, types of compensating filters, and specific applications for their use.

• Recognize radiographic terminology, articulations, body planes, and anatomy.

• Identify anatomic landmarks

• Demonstrate proper manipulation and alignment of the radiographic equipment

• Distinguish between positions, projections, and views.

• Demonstrate the body positions and body movements used in radiologic procedures.

• List the principals and guidelines used in radiographic positioning.

• Describe the necessity for radiation protection and methods used for radiation protection.

Unit 2 -  Thoracic Viscera: radiographic anatomy, positioning, and procedures of the Chest

• List the structures constituting the airway through to the distal aspects of the lungs, identifying all anatomy.

• Describe structure and function of the respiratory system.

• List the bony landmarks associated with certain organs of the respiratory system.

• Relate understanding of body habitus, thoracic cavity, respiratory system, and mediastinum.

• Identify lung anatomy and bony thorax anatomy on frontal and lateral diagrams and PA, AP, and Lateral radiographs.

• Explain general positioning considerations including the visualization of air-fluid levels.

• Summarize pathologies of the thoracic viscera.

• Explain the use of girds, AEC, and APR.

• Describe the differences between a diagnostic Chest radiograph and an improperly positioned chest radiograph. 

• Select appropriate exposure factors for all essential chest projections simulated in the lab.

• Indicate proper radiation protection for all projections.

• Practice and simulate in lab the following chest procedures: PA and Lateral Chest, AP Wheelchair Chest, and Lateral Decubitus Chest.

Unit 3 -  Abdomen: radiographic anatomy, positioning, and procedures of the abdomen.

• Identify the anatomy and anatomic landmarks of the abdominopelvic cavity.

• Identify the soft tissue structures that should be visible on a correctly exposed abdominal radiograph.

• Localize all abdominal organs to one of the four abdominal quadrants.

• List the nine abdominal regions

• Relate understanding of how body habitus impacts positioning the abdomen projections.

• Summarize pathologies of the abdomen.

• Select appropriate exposure factors for all essential abdomen projections simulated in the lab.

• Explain abdominal sequencing and proper use of compensating filters.

• Indicate proper radiation protection for all abdomen projections, male and female.

• Describe the evaluation criteria for producing diagnostic radiographs of the abdomen.

• Practice and simulate in lab the following abdomen procedures: Upright and Supine (KUB) abdomen, Decubitus abdomen.

Unit 4 - Thumb, Finger, Hand and Wrist: radiographic anatomy, positioning, and procedures.

• Identify anatomy, articulations, and anatomical relationships of the thumb, finger, hand, and wrist.

• Describe proper procedure steps for basic radiographic projections of the thumb, finger, hand, and wrist.

• Discuss general procedures of the upper limb.

• Explain how motion can be controlled on radiographs of the extremities.

• Summarize pathologies of the upper limb.

• Select appropriate exposure factors for all essential projections simulated in the lab.

• Indicate proper radiation protection.

• Describe evaluation criteria for producing diagnostic radiographs of the thumb, finger, hand, and wrist.

• Demonstrate with competence, thumb, finger, hand, and wrist radiographic procedures through lab simulations through Lab simulations.

Unit 5 - Forearm, Elbow, Humerus: radiographic anatomy, positioning, and procedures.  

• Identify anatomy, articulations, and anatomical relationships of the forearm, elbow, humerus.

• Describe proper procedure steps for basic radiographic projections of the forearm, elbow, humerus.

• List the projection for a partially flexed elbow that cannot be fully extended.

• Identify the projection or part positions that would demonstrate the following specific anatomical parts: head and neck of radius, coronoid process of ulna, olecranon process of ulna, and relationship of head of humerus to glenoid fossa.

• Discuss fat pads of the elbow.

• State the two projections of the proximal humerus that should be taken when the patient has symptoms of possible fracture or dislocation.

• Summarize pathologies of the upper limb.

• Select appropriate exposure factors for all essential projections simulated in the lab. • Indicate proper radiation protection.

• Describe evaluation criteria for producing diagnostic radiographs of the forearm, elbow, and humerus.

• Demonstrate with competence, forearm, elbow, and humerus radiographic procedures through lab simulations through Lab simulations.

Unit 6 - Shoulder Girdle, Clavicle, AC Joints, and Scapula: anatomy, positioning, and procedures.

• Identify anatomy, articulations, and anatomical relationships of the proximal humerus, clavicle, shoulder, and scapula.

• Describe the three classifications of joints.

• List the six types of joint movements under the diarthroidial classification.

• Describe relative positions or locations of principal structures involving the shoulder girdle.

• Describe in detail shoulder girdle articulations.

• Relate proper use of and type of, specially designed compensating filter for the shoulder.

• Illustrate hand position and its effect on the proximal humerus.

• Summarize pathologies of the shoulder girdle.

• Select appropriate exposure factors for all essential projections simulated in the lab.

• Indicate proper radiation protection.

• Describe evaluation criteria for producing diagnostic radiographs of the shoulder girdle, clavicle, AC joints, and scapula.

• Describe evaluation criteria for producing diagnostic radiographs of the shoulder girdle, clavicle, AC joints, and scapula.

Unit 7 - Toe, Foot, Calcaneus, and Ankle: anatomy, positioning, and procedures.

• Identify anatomy, articulations, and anatomical relationships of the toe, foot, calcaneus, and ankle.  

• Identify the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot and how they impact the function of the lower extremity.

• State all joints of the foot and ankle as to correct classification and movement type.

• Describe surface markings of the foot using radiographic terminology.

• Explain the conversion rule for converting exposure factors from routine non-cast extremity to a cast.

• Summarize use of compensating filters for toe and foot projections.

• Discuss weight-bearing foot and ankle projections.

• Explain pediatric projections used for congenital Talipes equinovarus.

• Discuss in detail the ankle mortise joint.

• Summarize pathologies of the lower extremity.

• Select appropriate exposure factors for all essential projections simulated in the lab.

• Indicate proper radiation protection.

• Describe evaluation criteria for producing diagnostic radiographs of the toe, foot, calcaneus, and ankle.

• Demonstrate with competence, toe, foot, calcaneus, and ankle. radiographic procedures through lab simulations.

Unit 8 - Lower Leg, Knee, Intercondylar Fossa and Femur: anatomy, positioning, and procedures.

• Identify anatomy, articulations, and anatomical relationships of the lower leg, knee, intercondylar fossa, and femur.

• Discuss pelvic thickness and central ray angles for AP knee radiographs.

• Describe the anatomic structures best demonstrated on specific projections.

• List all special projections of the patella.

• State joint classifications and movement types of the lower extremity.

• Discuss the weight-bearing knee projections, both AP and PA.

• Summarize the standing projection of the hips, knees, and ankles for extremity alignment and length measurement.

• Summarize pathologies of the lower extremity.

• Select appropriate exposure factors for all essential projections simulated in the lab. • Indicate proper radiation protection.

• Describe evaluation criteria for producing diagnostic radiographs of the lower leg, knee, intercondylar fossa, and femur.

• Demonstrate with competence, lower leg, knee, intercondylar fossa, and femur. radiographic procedures through lab simulations.

Unit 9 - Pelvis and Proximal Femora to include Hip, Acetabulum, and Anterior Pelvic Bones: anatomy, positioning, and procedures.

• Identify anatomy, articulations, and anatomical relationships of the pelvis and proximal femora

• Distinguish between pelvis and proximal femora anatomy.  

• Identify the six positioning landmarks of the pelvic girdle.

• List the two divisions of the pelvic girdle and describe the structural and functional differences of these two divisions.

• Describe the joint classifications and movement types for the joints of the pelvic girdle.

• List the differences of the android and gynecoid pelvis.

• Summarize alternative positioning landmarks that can used instead of the pubic symphysis.

• Discuss how foot position impacts the AP pelvis.

• Relate grid use and the cross-table lateral hip projection.

• Summarize pathologies of the lower extremity.

• Select appropriate exposure factors for all essential projections simulated in the lab.

• Indicate proper radiation protection.

• Describe evaluation criteria for producing diagnostic radiographs of the hip, pelvis, acetabulum, and anterior pelvic bones.

• Demonstrate with competence, hip, pelvis, acetabulum, and anterior pelvic bones radiographic procedures through lab simulations.



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