Sep 24, 2023  
2023-2024 General Catalog 
2023-2024 General Catalog
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MLT 250 - Clinical Microbiology

Last Date of Approval: Spring 2021

4 Credits
Total Lecture Hours: 45
Total Lab Hours: 30
Total Clinical Hours: 0
Total Work-Based Experience Hours: 0

Course Description:
Microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria causing disease in humans is studied. Theory and principles of identification, biochemical reactions, growth requirements, and susceptibility testing will be discussed. This course also includes new technologies in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious disease. This course will help students gain scientific literacy vital to making important life decisions. The course is designed to help students develop the hands-on and critical thinking skills needed to function as an entry-level medical laboratory technician and satisfies curriculum requirements of the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences.

Corequisites: MLT 111  
Prerequisites: BIO 186 
Mode(s) of Instruction: traditional/face-to-face

Credit for Prior Learning: There are no Credit for Prior Learning opportunities for this course.

Course Fees: Course Materials: $50.00

Student Learning Outcomes and Objectives:
  1. Explain and demonstrate how to properly collect, handle, and set up microbiology specimens for culture.  Demonstrate ability to perform identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing on bacteria using manual methods and systems such as Microscan, API, and/or Kirby Bauer.
  2. Discuss the different factors involved in the bacterial pathogenic process including transmission, isolation, and treatment options.
  3. Analyze cultures to determine if colony growth is significant based on the amount of pathogenic versus normal flora bacteria present.  List potential pathogens found in each type of culture and potential disease states.
  4. Prepare, interpret, and report gram stain results.
  5. Analyze and interpret results of quality control samples and perform quality assurance procedures in the microbiology laboratory.
  6. Demonstrate good interpersonal skills and ability to accept assistance and constructive criticism while maintaining professional and courteous working relationships with fellow students and instructors.
  7. Demonstrate ability to follow written and oral instructions and spend adequate time needed to complete and master assignments and testing techniques using manual or automated equipment while following universal precautions.  Must also be willing to repeat procedures if necessary.

Course Objectives

  1. Discuss lab safety related to microbiology.
  2. List standard precautions.
  3. List work practice controls.
  4. Discuss different techniques to minimize exposure to infectious agents.
  5. Perform hand hygiene and discuss appropriate times it must be done.
  6. List the 4 different types of biosafety levels and examples of infectious agents of each.
  7. Explain the function and use of Safety Data Sheets (SDS) in the laboratory.
  8. List reasons for rejecting a microbiology sample and explain proper collection.
  9. Categorize cultures according to priority and proper storage of each prior to inoculation.
  10. Discuss the purpose of direct exams and the various stains.
  11. Explain the procedure used in inoculating samples including temperature, atmosphere, and media.
  12. Explain how MIC and MBC are determined by the broth dilution method.
  13. Explain the Kirby Bauer susceptibility testing method and the factors affecting it.
  14. List the major groups of antibiotics, their mode of action and major use.
  15. List biochemical tests and results used to differentiate Staph, Strep, and Micrococcus and describe their growth on various agar plates.
  16. Discuss the gram stain reactions and cellular components of Staph, Strep, Neisseria and Haemophilus.
  17. Name clinically significant diseases caused by the gram pos & neg cocci and Haemophilus including the treatment options.
  18. Explain the Lancefield method of grouping streptococcus and which strep are in each group.
  19. Explain how to differentiate Neisseria spp. from Moraxella ssp. Including the disease states, specimen collection, media, and treatment.
  20. Discuss the significance of finding gram negative diplococcic in a direct smear of male vs. female. Identify how the specimens are collected.
  21. Explain the principle of X, V & XV discs used to identify Haemophilus pathogens and how the X-factor is related to the porphyrin test.
  22. Name the three biochemical characteristics of all Enterobacteriaceae.
  23. Explain the reaction, reagents, growth on media, and results of the differential tests used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae.
  24. List the most common bacteria in each of the seven tribes and the common characteristics.
  25. Identify the most common Enterobacteriaceae based on common biochemical test results including the associated disease states and treatment options.
  26. Name three common characteristics of non-fermenters.
  27. Identify the most common non-fermenters by odor, pigment, and chemical tests.
  28. Name the diseases associated with Bordetella, Francisella, Brucella and Legionella and how they are contracted.
  29. List the HACEK organisms and commonly associated diseases.
  30. Discuss the colonial morphology and microscopic characteristics of each organism.
  31. Explain the atmosphere and media used for culturing, common disease and source, and presumptive I.D. of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Vibrio, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas.
  32. Identify key biochemical reactions that will help differentiate among the different genera and various species.
  33. Compare the confirmatory tests commonly used to identify these isolates.
  34. Explain the disease states and treatment options associated with each group of organisms.
  35. Identify the most common animal reservoir for the members of the genera Pasteurella, Brucella, and Francisella including the disease states in humans.
  36. Compare the methods of identification currently used to diagnose infections caused by the organisms discussed.
  37. Explain the factors that affect the virulence, growth, and identification of the Pasteurella Species. 
  38. Classify the anaerobic bacteria according to spore vs. non-spore forming and gram stain.
  39. Differentiate the Clostridium species according to diseases and presumptive I.D. characteristics.
  40. Identify the most common location of the different anaerobic bacteria in the body.
  41. Discuss the importance of proper specimen collection, handling, and incubation.
  42. List the significant diseases caused by aerobic gram positive bacilli.
  43. Discuss the most significant morphology and/or biochemical tests used to I.D. the aerobic gram positive bacilli.
  44. Explain the proper specimen collection and specimen processing technique used for optimum recovery of Mycobacterium spp.
  45. List the different classes of mycobacterium and explain the characteristics of each.
  46. Explain the tests used to identify the pathogenic Mycobacterium species.
  47. Name the common species of Mycobacterium which are producing disease in humans and explain why these diseases have become a major problem in the United States today.
  48. List the body’s lines of defense against microorganisms.
  49. Define normal flora.
  50. List the normal flora and pathogens for the specific organ systems and body sources.
  51. Explain the pathogenic mechanisms for each type of culture and organism.
  52. Discuss the collection and processing of each type of culture.

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